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Hypothermia

Definition

Hypothermia is an abnormally low body temperature. It is a dangerous condition that requires immediate medical attention.

Causes

Hypothermia occurs when your body loses more heat than it can produce. It is usually the result of being exposed to very cold temperatures. But it can also occur in other circumstances, such as:

Risk Factors

People who may have a higher risk of hypothermia include:
The may also be increased by certain medications and conditions that make it harder for your body to stay warm.

Symptoms

Symptoms of hypothermia usually happen gradually. Over time, mental and physical abilities are lessened. The main symptoms of hypothermia are:
The situation becomes dangerous when shivering stops and confusion and drowsiness increase. Hypothermia is deadly because it causes the heartbeat to slow down, become irregular, and eventually stop.
Heartbeat
Heart EKG
In hypothermia, the heartbeat slows. If left untreated, the heart will stop beating.
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Diagnosis

Normal body temperature is 98.6˚F (37˚C). Hypothermia is diagnosed when body temperature reaches 95˚F (35˚C) or lower. Only a special rectal thermometer that reads low temperatures can confirm that someone has this condition.

Treatment

It is important to act quickly if you suspect that you or someone else has hypothermia:
A person with severe hypothermia may be unconscious and appear to have no pulse. Medical attention is important because, in some cases, people can be saved even though they appear dead.

Prevention

If you are planning to spend time outside, take the following precautions:
Also, take special precautions with older adults, babies, and young children. If rooms are not kept warm enough, they can be affected by hypothermia even if they remain indoors.

RESOURCES

Hypothermia Prevention, Recognition, and Treatment http://www.hypothermia.org

National Prevention Information Network http://www.cdcnpin.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Red Cross http://www.redcross.ca

Health Canada http://chp-pcs.gc.ca

References

Hypothermia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Published August 11, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.

Hypothermia: a cold weather hazard. National Institute on Aging website. Available at: http://www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/hypothermia-cold-weather-hazard. Updated September 12, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.

Winter weather FAQs. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.bt.cdc.gov/disasters/winter/faq.asp. Updated November 26, 2013. Accessed September 30, 2014.

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