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Dengue Fever

(Break Bone Fever)

Definition

Dengue fever is a flu-like illness. The infection is passed to humans through mosquito bites. Children and infants who are infected may have no symptoms or only a minor, flu-like illness. Adults who become infected may develop a more severe, life-threatening illness.

Causes

Dengue fever is caused by 1 of 4 specific dengue viruses. They are passed to humans by infected mosquitoes. The bite can allow the virus to enter the bloodstream and spread through the body. Once in the body, the virus may cause dengue fever.
Mosquito Bite
Mosquito bite
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Risk Factors

Travel to tropical or subtropical areas can increase your chance of getting dengue fever. Areas with known dengue fever include:

Symptoms

Young children or those with their first infection may have mild symptoms. Primary symptoms are a high fever and at least 2 of the following:
The fever tends to reduce within 3-7 days after symptoms begin. As the fever decreases, warning signs of a severe infection may appear, such as:
A severe infection can lead to shock and organ failure.

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. You will also be asked whether you recently travelled to high-risk areas.
Your body fluids may be tested. This can be done with blood tests.

Treatment

You may be referred to a specialist.
There are no medications currently available that can provide a cure. Treatment is aimed at providing support while the body fights off and eliminates the virus. Supportive care may include:

Prevention

If you are in an area with known dengue fever, the following steps may help decrease your risk of dengue fever:
Vaccines are under development, but are not currently available.

RESOURCES

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov

Infectious Diseases Society of America http://www.idsociety.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca

References

Dengue. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/dengue. Updated March 26, 2015. Accessed June 1, 2015.

Dengue. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 9, 2015. Accessed June 1, 2015.

Dengue. World Health Organization (WHO) website. Available at: http://www.who.int/topics/dengue/en. Accessed June 1, 2015.

Dengue fever. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/denguefever/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed June 1, 2015.

10/1/2013 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Reimer LJ, Thomsen EK, et al. Insecticidal bed nets and filariasis transmission in Papua New Guinea. N Eng J Med. 2013; 369(8):745-753.

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