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Folic Acid Deficiency

(Folate Deficiency; Folacin Deficiency)

Definition

Folic acid deficiency means that there is a lower than normal amount of folic acid in your blood. Folic acid is a water-soluble B vitamin, which means it cannot be stored in the body. You must get a continual supply of it.
This B vitamin plays a role in:
Scanning Electron Micrograph of Red Blood Cells
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Causes

There are several causes of folic acid deficiency, including the following:

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your risk of developing folic acid deficiency include:

Symptoms

Folic acid deficiency may cause:
Complications from folic acid deficiency include:

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. A blood test can help confirm a diagnosis of low folate levels and megaloblastic anemia.
It is difficult to distinguish between folic acid deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency . However, folic acid deficiency is confirmed only by measuring red blood cell (RBC) folate levels in the blood.
It is especially important to confirm a diagnosis of folic acid deficiency before treatment with supplemental folic acid begins. Mistreating an actual vitamin B12 deficiency with supplemental folic acid will mask the vitamin B12 deficiency, meaning the anemia will be corrected, but the neurological damage associated with vitamin B12 deficiency will progress.

Treatment

Folic acid deficiency is usually treated with 1,000 micrograms of supplemental folic acid, given once a day until folic acid levels are replenished. The anemia usually is corrected within 2 months.

Prevention

It is possible to consume enough folic acid by eating a balanced, varied diet including rich sources of folate, the food form of folic acid. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for folic acid is 400 micrograms per day for most adults.
To get enough folate, consume plenty of the following foods:

RESOURCES

March of Dimes http://www.marchofdimes.org

Office of Dietary Supplements—National Institutes of Health http://ods.od.nih.gov

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

Healthy U http://www.healthyalberta.com

References

Bariatric surgery. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 18, 2014. Accessed December 22, 2014.

Dietary supplement fact sheet: folate. Office of Dietary Supplements website.Available at: http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Folate-HealthProfessional. Updated December 14, 2012. Accessed December 22, 2014.

Folate deficiency. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated November 13, 2014. Accessed December 22, 2014.

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