Back

Animal Bites

Definition

An animal bite is a wound caused by the teeth of an animal. The teeth puncture, tear, scratch, bruise, or crush the tissue. The injury can damage skin, nerves, bone, muscle, blood vessels, or joints.

Causes

Most bites occur when an animal has been provoked. Animals with rabies bite without being provoked.

Risk Factors

Most bites occur in children and young adults. Males are affected more often than females. Bites happen more frequently in warmer weather.

Symptoms

Symptoms of a bite include pain and bleeding.
Wounds may become infected due to the bacteria normally found in the animal's mouth or a systemic infection of the animal, such as rabies . Wounds may also become infected from microbes on the skin or in the environment.
Symptoms of infection include:

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about how the bite occurred, the animal that bit you, and your medical history. The doctor will examine the wound and assess damage to any nearby muscles, tendons, nerves, or bones. If the wound appears infected, the doctor may use a sterile swab to remove a sample for testing.
Other tests may include:
Dog Bite to Hand
Dog Bite
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Treatment

The goal of treatment is to promote healing, decrease the risk of infection, and prevent complications. If your dog bit you and it has had all its vaccinations, you may be able to treat a minor wound yourself. However, call your provider for medical advice. Receiving medical care within the first 24 hours decreases the chance of infection.
Seek medical care in these situations:
Regardless of the severity of the bite, see a doctor if you have a chronic medical condition, such as:

Self-care

  • Wash the wound with soap and water for at least 5 minutes.
  • Apply pressure with a clean towel to stop the bleeding.
  • If bleeding does not stop within 15 minutes, seek immediate medical care.
  • Place a sterile bandage on the open area.
  • Elevate the wound, keeping the area above the level of your heart to decrease swelling.
  • Keep the bandage clean and dry.
  • Check the wound regularly for signs of infection.

Medical Care

Your doctor can clean the wound, washing the tissue with large amounts of fluid. Debris and dead tissue can be removed. The wound may or may not be closed with stitches. It often is kept open to decrease the risk of infection. After 24 hours, the doctor may use adhesive strips to bring the edges of the wound closer together. Antibiotics may be ordered and a tetanus shot may be given
Be sure to tell your doctor as much as you can about the animal that you bit you and the circumstances surrounding the incident. If the identity of the animal is unknown and it cannot be monitored for rabies, you may need to receive treatment to prevent this life-threatening disease.

Prevention

Be aware that most animal bites are from dogs. Dog owners are most likely to be bitten by their own dog. To help reduce your chance of an animal bite:

RESOURCES

Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians http://familydoctor.org

The American Veterinary Medical Association http://www.avma.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

About Kids Health—The Hospital for Sick Children http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca

Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

References

Cat and dog bites. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/prevention-wellness/staying-healthy/pets-animals/cat-and-dog-bites.html. Updated Updated April 2014. Accessed October 29, 2014.

Mammalian bite. Updated April 1, 2014. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Accessed October 29, 2014.

Wunner WH, Briggs DJ. Rabies in the 21st century. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4(3):e591.

Revision Information