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Chlamydia

Definition

Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States.
Treatment includes antibiotics, partner notification, and lifestyle changes.

Causes

Chlamydia is caused by a bacterium that is transmitted from an infected partner during sex. This can happen during oral, vaginal, or anal sex.

Risk Factors

Chlamydia is most common among sexually active teens and young adults. Other factors that increase your chances of getting chlamydia include:

Symptoms

Most people who have chlamydia do not have symptoms. If symptoms do occur, they might appear within 1-3 weeks of exposure.
Symptoms in men may include:
Symptoms in women may include:
Pregnant women can transmit chlamydia to their newborns during birth. This may cause conjunctivitis or pneumonia in the baby. Identification and treatment during pregnancy can greatly reduce risks for the baby.
Chlamydia can also cause serious health complications.
Complications in men include:
Male Genitourinary System
Prostate Gland
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Complications in women include:

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Diagnosis is based on tests.
Your bodily fluids will be tested. This can be done with:
You may be tested for other STDs, such as:

Treatment

Chlamydia is treated with antibiotics.
To ensure successful treatment:

Prevention

To reduce the chances of getting chlamydia, take these steps:

RESOURCES

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov

Women's Health—US Department of Health and Human Services http://www.womenshealth.gov

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

Sex Information and Education Council of Canada http://www.sieccan.org

References

Blas MM, Canchihuaman FA, et al. Pregnancy outcomes in women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis: a population-based cohort study in Washington State. Sex Transm Infect. 2007;83(4):314-318.

Chlamydia. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/std/chlamydia/default.htm. Updated December 16, 2014. Accessed May 28, 2015.

Chlamydia genital infection. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 11, 2015. Accessed May 28, 2015.

Chlamydia fact sheet. Women's Health—US Department of Health and Human Services website. Available at: http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/chlamydia.html. Updated July 8, 2011. Accessed May 28, 2015.

Gottlieb SL, Martin DH, et al. Summary: The natural history and immunobiology of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection and implications for Chlamydia control. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:Suppl 2:S190-204.

Kent CK, Chaw JK, et al. Prevalence of rectal, urethral, and pharyngeal chlamydia and gonorrhea detected in 2 clinical settings among men who have sex with men: San Francisco, California, 2003. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:67-74.

Workowski KA, Berman S, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010. MMWR. 2010;59(No. RR-12):1-110.

3/17/2015 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2014 Dec 16;161(12):902-10.

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