Back

Optic Neuritis

(Inflammation of Optic Nerve)

Definition

The optic nerve allows you to see by carrying images from your eye to your brain. Optic neuritis involves inflammation of the optic nerve. This may cause reduced vision or loss of vision. It is a serious condition that requires immediate care from your doctor.
The Optic Nerve
Nucleus Image
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Causes

Optic neuritis has several causes. These include:
In some, the cause of optic neuritis may be unknown.

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your chance of optic neuritis include:

Symptoms

In some people, optic neuritis may not cause any visual problems. In those that have them, optic neuritis may cause:
Eye pain will often go away within a few days. Vision problems will improve in the majority of people. Some may be left with blurred, dark, dim, distorted vision, or complete visual loss. Vision usually improves over several weeks or months.

Diagnosis

Optic neuritis may be difficult to diagnose. Your eye may look perfectly normal. Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. It will include a neurologic examination. You may be referred to an ophthalmologist (eye specialist) or neurologist (nervous system specialist).
Your doctor may need to test your eye function. This can be done with:
Your doctor may need to test your bodily fluids. This can be done with:
Your doctor may need pictures of your internal bodily structures. This can be done with an MRI or optical coherence tomography (OCT).
Your doctor may also need to evaluate you for spinal cord problems. This can be done with a somatosensory evoked potentials test.

Treatment

Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include:

Prevention

There are no current guidelines to prevent optic neuritis.

RESOURCES

Eye Smart—American Academy of Opthalmology http://www.geteyesmart.org

North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society http://www.nanosweb.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Association of Optometrists http://www.opto.ca

Canadian Ophthalmological Society http://www.eyesite.ca

References

Agostoni E, Frigerio R, et al. Controversies in optic neuritis pain diagnosis. Neurol Sci. 2005;26(Suppl 2):s75-s78.

Bianchi Marzoli S, Martinelli V. Optic neuritis: differential diagnosis. Neurol Sci. 2001;22(Suppl 2):S52-S54.

Boomer JA, Siatkowski RM. Optic neuritis in adults and children. Semin Ophthalmol. 2003;18:174-180.

Chan JW. Optic neuritis in multiple sclerosis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2002;10:161-186.

Hickman SJ, Dalton CM, et al. Management of acute optic neuritis. Lancet. 2002;360:1953-1962.

Lis SY, Birnbaum AD, et al. Optic neuritis associated with adalimumab in the treatment of uveitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2010;18(6):475-481.

Optic neuritis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 24, 2013. Accessed August 21, 2014.

Romero RS, Gutierrez Y, et al. Homonymous hemimacular thinning: a unique presentation of optic tract thinning in neuromyelitis optica. J Neuroophthalmal. 2012;32(2):150-153.

Volpe NJ. The optic neuritis treatment trial: a definitive answer and profound impact with unexpected results. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126(7):996-999.

Revision Information