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Nystagmus

Definition

Nystagmus is a type of involuntary movement of the eyes. The movement varies between slow and fast and usually involves both eyes.
Different types of nystagmus are:

Causes

The direct cause of nystagmus is instability in the motor system that controls the eyes. In some cases, the cause of nystagmus is unknown.

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your chance of nystagmus include:

Symptoms

Nystagmus may cause:

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. If nystagmus seems to be present, you may need:
Tests may include the following:
Imaging tests may include:
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
MRI of the Brain
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The ophthalmologist will also look for other eye problems that may be related to the nystagmus, such as strabismus, cataracts , or abnormality of the optic nerves or retina.
The ear specialist will look for signs of ear infection, and for worsening of the nystagmus with head positions.

Treatment

Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Removal of the cause of nystagmus can sometimes eliminate the problem, for example discontinuing a medication or stopping alcohol or drug use. However, nystagmus often is a permanent condition that can only be reduced and not eliminated. Treatment options to reduce nystagmus and improve vision include the following:
Low-vision aids can often help improve vision. They may include large print or high contrast materials, good lighting, and magnifying devices.

Prevention

There are no current guidelines to prevent nystagmus.

RESOURCES

American Optometric Association http://www.aoa.org

Eye Smart—American Academpy of Ophthalmology http://www.eyesmart.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Ophthalmological Society http://www.cos-sco.ca

Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

References

Eye facts about nystagmus. American Nystagmus Network website. Available at: http://www.nystagmus.org/aao.html. Accessed February 18, 2013.

General information about nystagmus. American Nystagmus Network website. Available at: http://www.nystagmus.org/aboutn.html. Accessed February 18, 2013.

Hertle RW. Understanding and treatment of infantile nystagmus syndrome. Presentation at the 4th Biennial Conference of the American Nystagmus Network, Los Angeles, CA. July 8-10, 2005. American Nystagmus Network website. Available at: http://www.nystagmus.org/doc/conf2005/hertle%5FANN.pdf. Accessed February 18, 2013.

Nystagmus. American Academy of Ophthalmology Eye Smart website. Available at: http://www.geteyesmart.org/eyesmart/diseases/nystagmus.cfm. Accessed February 18, 2013.

Maybodi M. Understanding nystagmus: diagnosis, related disorders, treatment, and research. Presentation at the 3rd Biennial Conference of the American Nystagmus Network, Baltimore, MD. July 11-13, 2003. Available at: http://www.nystagmus.org/doc/conf2003/KEYNOTE.pdf. Accessed February 18, 2013.

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