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Hypokalemia

Definition

Potassium is a mineral that is needed to help the heart, kidneys, and other organs function. Hypokalemia is lower than normal levels of potassium in your blood.
All cells within the body need potassium. It works to regulate water and mineral balance throughout the body. Low levels can cause muscle and nerve problems throughout the body. It can also cause an irregular heart rate.

Causes

Potassium enters the body through food and digestion. It passes out of the blood through the kidneys. Hypokalemia occurs when there is not enough potassium being absorbed into the body, too much potassium is removed by the kidneys, or potassium moves from the blood into the cells.

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase with potassium excretion through the kidneys include:
Factors that may shift potassium into cells:
Excess loss of potassium from diarrhea
Kidney Damage
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Factors that may decrease your intake or absorption of potassium include:

Symptoms

Early hypokalemia may not have any symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they may include:

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Potassium levels in your body fluids will be tested with:
An EKG may be done to see if the potassium is affecting your heart.

Treatment

The main goal of treatment is to increase the level of potassium in your body. Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Options include:

Medications

IV fluids may be given. You may also be given the following to raise the amount of potassium in your blood if it is very low:
  • Potassium
  • Magnesium—if it is also low
Your current medications may be changed if they are the cause of your hypokalemia.
Any underlying condition will be treated.

Dietary Changes

You may be advised to increase the amount of potassium in your diet. You may be referred to a dietitian to help you balance the potassium in your diet.

Prevention

To help reduce your chance of getting hypokalemia, take these steps:

RESOURCES

American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists http://www.aace.com

Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.familydoctor.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

The Canadian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism http://www.endo-metab.ca

Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

References

Hypokalemia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated November 15, 2013. Accessed February 17, 2015.

Hypokalaemia. Patient UK website. Available at: http://www.patient.co.uk/doctor/hypokalaemia. Updated December 4, 2013. Accessed February 17, 2015.

Hypokalemia. NORD website. Available at: https://www.rarediseases.org/rare-disease-information/rare-diseases/byID/748/viewFullReport. Updated February 2, 2008. Accessed February 17, 2015.

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