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Claustrophobia

Definition

Claustrophobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by irrational fear of enclosed or small spaces. People with claustrophobia often describe it as feeling trapped without an exit or way out. Claustrophobia involves emotional and physical reactions to triggering situations. The fear of claustrophobia may be intense, but treatment can help manage or overcome it.
Common Physical Reaction to Triggering Situations
Physical reaction anxiety
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Causes

The cause of claustrophobia is not well known, but it is likely a combination of genetic factors and a person's environment..

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your chance of developing a claustrophobic anxiety attack include:

Symptoms

Claustrophobia usually develops early in life during childhood or the teenage years. Claustrophobia may bring on feelings similar to a panic attack , which may cause:
Other symptoms of claustrophobia may include:

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Diagnosis is based on your history of persistent or excessive fear that may:

Treatment

Claustrophobia can disappear in adulthood. If it does not, treatment is usually necessary to overcome the fear. Talk with your doctor or mental health provider about the best treatment plan for you. Options include:

Psychotherapy

The most common type of treatment for claustrophobia involves mental health counseling targeted to overcoming the fear and managing triggering situations.
Different types of strategies include:
  • Relaxation and visualization techniques designed to calm the fear when in a claustrophobic environment
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)—an approach that involves learning to control the thoughts that occur when confronted with the fear-inducing situation in order to change the reaction

Medication

Your doctor may prescribe medications to control the panic and physical symptoms of claustrophobia. These include antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs. They will not cure the condition but are often helpful when used with psychotherapy.

Prevention

There are no current guidelines to prevent claustrophobia.

RESOURCES

American Psychiatric Association http://www.psychiatry.org

Anxiety and Depression Association of America http://www.adaa.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Mental Health Association http://www.cmha.ca

Canadian Psychiatric Association http://www.cpa-apc.org

References

Anxiety disorders. National Institute of Mental Health website. Available at: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/anxiety-disorders/index.shtml. Accessed July 22, 2013.

Specific phobia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 13, 2013. Accessed July 22, 2013.

Treatment. Anxiety Disorders Association of America. Available at: http://www.adaa.org/finding-help/treatment. Accessed July 22, 2013.

Revision Information